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LITERATURE

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LITERATURE
 
We will be studying poems, short stories, essays and plays in our English literature syllabus.
 
 
 
ROBERT FROST is one of our favourite poets.  Here are some of his quotations
 
 
We will be studying a few of his most famous poems.  Find out about his life at
 
 
Some of Robert Frost's poems:-
FIRE AND ICE
THE ROAD NOT TAKEN
"OUT, OUT, ... "
STOPPING BY WOOK ON A SNOWY EVENING

LITERATURE

SETTING -- The time and location in which a story takes place is called the setting.  For some stories the setting is very important, while for others it is not. 

 

There are several aspects of a story's setting to consider when examining how the setting contributes to a story (some, or all, may be present in a story):
a)  place - geographical location.  Where is the action of the story taking place?

b)  time - When is the story taking place? (historical period, time of day, year, etc)

c)  weather conditions - Is it rainy, sunny, stormy, etc?

d)  social conditions - What is the daily life of the character like? Does the story contain local colour (writing that focuses on the speech, dress, mannerisms, customs, etc. of a particular place)?

e)  mood or atmosphere - What feeling is created at the beginning of the story?  Is it bright and cheerful or dark and frightening?

 

PLOT -- The plot is how the author arranges events to develop his basic idea;  it is the sequence of events in a story or play.  The plot is a planned, logical series of events having a beginning, a middle and an end.  The short story usually has one plot so it can be read in one sitting.  There are five essential parts of a plot:
a)  Introduction - The beginning of the story where the characters and the setting is revealed.

b)  Rising Action - This is where the events in the story become complicated and the conflict in the story is revealed (events between the introduction and climax).

c)  Climax - This is the highest point of interest and the turning point of the story.  The reader wonders what will happen next; will the conflict be resolved or not?

d)  Falling action - The events and complications begin to resolve themselves.  The reader knows what happened next and if the conflict was resolved or not (events between climax and denouement).

e)  Denouement - This is the final outcome or untangling of events in the story.


CLIMAX - It is helpful to consider climax as a three-fold phenomenon: 

1)  the main character receives new information 

2)  accepts this information (realizes it but does not necessarily agree with it)

3)  acts on this information (makes a choice that will determine whether or not he/she gains his objective).

CONFLICT--   Conflict is essential to plot.  Without conflict there is no plot.  It is the opposition of forces which ties one incident to another and makes the plot move. 

 

Conflict is not merely limited to open arguments, rather it is any form of opposition that faces the main character. Within a short story there may be only one central struggle, or there may be one dominant struggle with many minor ones.

 

There are two types of conflict:
    1)  External - A struggle with a force outside one's self.

2)  Internal - A struggle within one's self; a person must make some decision, overcome pain, quiet their temper, resist an urge, etc

 
SUMMER'S READING
 
A story about George and his struggles with work, money, girls, hopes and dreams, his neighbourhood and his family.
 
Each week I will be adding questions and writing assignments based on this story.  Please check and make sure that you are keeping up with the class.
 
Questions for pages 14 and 15
 
1.  Explain why George had left school and how he felt about it.
 
2.  What did George think of doing to rectify the situation and what excuses did he find which stopped him rectifying the situation?
 
3.  What does George look like and how do you know this?
 
4.  Why doesn't George have a job?
 
5.  Where do his father and sister work and what is their financial situation?
 
6.  Briefly describe George's daily routine.
 
7.  Why do you think George lies to Sophie regarding his reading?
 
8.  What did George do to overcome his boredom?
 
9.  Describe George's neighbourhood in the evenings when George went out for his walk.
 
Questions for pages 16 and 17
 
1.  George wandered in the neighbourhood.  What does the word wander tell us about George?
 
2.  "Saving it till the last ... George walked for blocks."  This sentence tells us how important the park was for George.  Describe what George did and how he felt in the park.
 
3.  What differences are there between his neighbourhood and the park?
 
4. Describe Mr. Cattanzara.
 
5.  How does the New York Times compare with the newspapers Sophie sometimes brought home?
 
6.  What does the reading of the New York Times newspaper tell us about Mr. Cattanzara?
 
7.  What connection is there between Cattanzara and George and how does George feel about Cattanzara?
 
8.  Who else in the story shows an interest in George?
 
9.  In the first conversation between Mr. C and George why does George feel embarrassed?
 
10.  Why do you think George says, "I'm reading a lot to pick up my education"?
 
 
Work for pages 18-19
 
Mr. Cattanzarra is the only person in George's neighbourhood who pays attention to George and makes him feel he exists.  Whatsmore, Cattanzarra's main interest is reading.  Therefore, George stresses that he is reading in order to gain Cattanzarra's respect.  George has put himself into a position where he states his determination to read in order to improve his education.
 
1.  Read pages 18-19 and show how this statement of George to Mr. Cattanzarra affects his behaviour, his mood, his self confidence and his attitude towards all that surrounds him.
 
READ PAGES 20-21
1.  In what ways and why do people's attitudes change towards George?
2.  How does George feel about this?
3.  How does this affect George's behaviour?
 
READ TO THE END OF THE STORY
1.  Why does George's mood go from good to bad to very bad and what does this cause him to do?
2.  What significance does the park have for George and at what point in the story does he stop needing it?
3.  How does George's sister treat George at the beginning of the story and how does this change?
4.  What causes him to go to the library and what do you think he expects to do there?
5.  Justify your answer to question 3.

LOVE LIFE AND LOVE LEARNING - BOTH ARE PRECIOUS
BELIEVE IN YOURSELF
BELIEVE IN YOUR ABILITY AND NEVER GIVE UP
GRAB HOLD OF AN IDEA AND FLY WITH IT
THE SKY'S THE LIMIT